In addition to insulin, there are also other hormones that play a major role in weight management.
Leptin is one of the appetite suppressant / satiety hormones. It is secreted by fat cells in response to food. As fat mass increases, the level of leptin increases.
Probably, leptin signals to the brain that the energy requirement is saturated, and that food intake must be inhibited to prevent over-consumption of nutritional energy. Leptin suppresses insulin production, thereby inhibiting fat storage and stimulating fat burning.
In case of severe overweight (obesity), this mechanism no longer works properly, and leptin resistance develops (presumably due to reduced transport of leptin through the blood-brain barrier). It is also thought that high insulin levels can lead to leptin resistance. This makes it more difficult for them to feel full and they continue to consume calories rather than burn stored fat for energy. This leads to a cycle of increased weight gain.
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